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沼气设备脱硫中杂质对沼气利用的影响?

时间:2020-11-20
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  1、氧气和氮气
  1. Oxygen and nitrogen
  沼气在厌氧条件下产生,氧气和氮气一般不存在于沼气中,但是如果空气从外部进入到系统中,就可能发现氧气和氮气的存在。如果沼气中存在氧气,会慢慢被消耗掉。氮气存在则表明沼气发酵过程存在反硝化作用,或者反应器出现渗漏。在填埋场沼气中越容易发现氮气和较少量的氧气,因为抽取填埋场沼气时,填埋场形成负压,容易导致空气进人填埋场。氧气和沼气中的甲烷会形成易燃易爆的混合气体,因此沼气脱硫设备应谨慎控制氧气含量。
  Biogas is produced under anaerobic conditions, oxygen and nitrogen generally do not exist in biogas, but if air enters the system from outside, oxygen and nitrogen may be found. If there is oxygen in the biogas, it will be slowly consumed. The presence of nitrogen indicates that denitrification exists in the biogas fermentation process, or leakage occurs in the reactor. It is easier to find nitrogen and a small amount of oxygen in the landfill gas, because when the landfill gas is extracted, the negative pressure will be formed in the landfill site, which will easily lead to air entering the landfill site. Oxygen and methane in biogas will form flammable and explosive gas mixture. Therefore, methane desulfurization equipment should carefully control the oxygen content.
  2、二氧化碳
  2. Carbon dioxide
  二氧化碳是沼气中只次于甲烷的主要成分。不同类型的底物在发酵产沼气过程中都会产生二氧化碳。底物转化生成沼气是一个复杂的过程,涉及多个阶段和不同类型的微生物菌样,二氧化碳可形成于不同的阶段。在产甲烷阶段,二氧化碳作为电子受体,也可被转化成甲烷。
  Carbon dioxide is the main component of biogas only inferior to methane. Different types of substrates will produce carbon dioxide in the process of biogas production. Biogas production from substrate is a complex process, involving multiple stages and different types of microbial samples. Carbon dioxide can be formed in different stages. In the methanogenesis stage, carbon dioxide, as an electron acceptor, can also be converted into methane.
  二氧化碳会减低沼气热值,如果需要增加沼气热值(如用作车用燃气或并入天然气管网),应分离除去二氧化碳。沼气作为其他用途,例如,沼气发电或集中供气,沼气含有二氧化碳不会有大的问题,但是,二氧化碳溶于冷凝水形成碳酸,对管道和沼气脱硫设备有预定的腐蚀。
  Carbon dioxide will reduce the calorific value of biogas. If it is necessary to increase the calorific value of biogas (such as being used as vehicle fuel gas or incorporated into natural gas pipe network), carbon dioxide should be separated and removed. Biogas is used for other purposes, such as biogas power generation or centralized gas supply. There will be no big problem if biogas contains carbon dioxide. However, carbon dioxide dissolves in condensate water to form carbonic acid, which will cause predetermined corrosion to pipelines and biogas desulfurization equipment.
              生物脱硫
  3、水
  3. Water
  在沼气发酵过程中,由于蒸发作用,沼气中存在一些量的水分,未经处理的沼气通常含有饱和水蒸气,其含量与温度有关。沼气中的水分会引起后续利用一系列问题,例如,水和二氧化碳等混合后形成碳酸溶液腐蚀管道。
  In the process of biogas fermentation, due to evaporation, there is a certain amount of moisture in biogas. Untreated biogas usually contains saturated steam, and its content is related to temperature. The moisture in biogas will cause a series of problems in subsequent utilization, such as the formation of carbonic acid solution after water and carbon dioxide are mixed to corrode the pipeline.
  另外,水会减低沼气热值进而影响沼气利用。根据燃烧阶段的温度和压力,冷凝水会造成热交换器和排气部件堵塞。
  In addition, water will reduce the calorific value of biogas, thus affecting the utilization of biogas. Depending on the temperature and pressure of the combustion phase, condensate can cause blockage of the heat exchanger and exhaust components.
  4、氨是沼气中常见的杂质气体,氨来源于养殖废水、屠宰废水以及奶制品废水的蛋白质水解过程,沼气发酵过程氨氮过高会抵御产甲烧过程。
  4. Ammonia is a common impurity gas in biogas. Ammonia comes from the protein hydrolysis process of breeding wastewater, slaughtering wastewater and dairy wastewater. Too high ammonia nitrogen in biogas fermentation process will resist the process of nail production.
  5、颗粒物
  5. Particulate matter
  颗粒物作为水凝结的核,常出现在沼气中。由于其摩擦性能,颗粒物易造成沼气脱硫设备的磨损。
  As the core of water condensation, particles often appear in biogas. Due to its friction performance, particles are easy to cause wear of biogas desulfurization equipment.