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沼气脱硫:常见的干法脱硫方法有哪些?

  1、氧化铁法

1. Iron oxide method

  氧化铁法是一种古老的干式脱硫法,早先用于城市煤气净化,后经过不断改进,该法的应用范围不断扩大,目前氧化铁法脱硫已从常温扩大到中温和高温领域。早前使用的氧化铁脱硫剂为沼铁矿和人工氧化铁,,为增加其孔隙率,脱硫剂以木屑为填充料,再喷洒适量的水和少量熟石灰,反复翻晒制成,其pH值一般为8-9,该种脱硫剂脱硫效率较低,必须塔外再生,再生困难,不久便被其他脱硫剂所取代。现在新型的脱硫剂应用较广,脱硫剂脱硫效率较髙,并可以进行塔内再生。

The iron oxide method is an ancient dry desulfurization method, which was originally used for urban gas purification. After continuous improvement, the application scope of this method continues to expand. Currently, the iron oxide method for desulfurization has expanded from room temperature to medium to high temperature fields. The iron oxide desulfurizers used earlier were biogas iron ore and artificial iron oxide. In order to increase their porosity, the desulfurizer was filled with wood chips, sprayed with an appropriate amount of water and a small amount of hydrated lime, and repeatedly sun dried. Its pH value was generally 8-9. This type of desulfurizer has a low desulfurization efficiency and must be regenerated outside the tower, making regeneration difficult. It was soon replaced by other desulfurizers. Nowadays, new desulfurizers are widely used, with high desulfurization efficiency and the ability to perform tower regeneration.

  2、氧化锌法

2. Zinc oxide method

  氧化锌脱硫以其脱硫精度高、使用便捷、稳妥可靠、硫容量高等特点,广泛地应用于合成氨、制氢、煤化工、石油精制、饮料生产等行业,以脱除天然气、石油馏分、油田气、炼厂气、合成气(CO+H2)、二氧化碳等原料中的硫化氢及某些有机硫化物。

Zinc oxide desulfurization is widely used in industries such as synthetic ammonia, hydrogen production, coal chemical industry, petroleum refining, and beverage production due to its high desulfurization accuracy, convenient use, reliability, and high sulfur capacity. It is used to remove hydrogen sulfide and certain organic sulfides from natural gas, petroleum fractions, oilfield gas, refinery gas, synthetic gas (CO+H2), carbon dioxide, and other raw materials.

  3、活性碳吸附法

3. Activated carbon adsorption method

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  活性炭吸附法烟气脱硫是利用活性炭的吸附性能吸附净化烟气中二氧化硫的方法。当烟气中有氮和水蒸气存在时,用活性炭吸附二氧化硫不仅有物理吸附,而且还存在着化学吸附。由于活性表面具有催化作用,使烟气中的二氧化硫在活性炭的吸附表面上被氧气氧化为三氧化硫,饱和后的活性碳可通过水洗或加热再生,再与水反应生成硫酸,同时生成稀硫酸或高浓度二氧化硫。可获得副产品硫酸,液态二氧化硫和单质硫,即可以有效地控制SO2的排放,又可以回收硫资源。

Activated carbon adsorption method for flue gas desulfurization is a method of using the adsorption performance of activated carbon to adsorb and purify sulfur dioxide in flue gas. When nitrogen and water vapor are present in the flue gas, using activated carbon to adsorb sulfur dioxide not only has physical adsorption, but also chemical adsorption. Due to the catalytic effect of the active surface, sulfur dioxide in the flue gas is oxidized to sulfur trioxide by oxygen on the adsorption surface of the activated carbon. The saturated activated carbon can be regenerated by water washing or heating, and then react with water to generate sulfuric acid, while generating dilute sulfuric acid or high concentration sulfur dioxide. It can obtain by-products such as sulfuric acid, liquid sulfur dioxide, and elemental sulfur, which can effectively control SO2 emissions and recover sulfur resources.

  4、喷雾干燥法

4. Spray drying

  喷雾干燥法脱硫工艺以石灰为脱硫吸收剂,石灰经消化并加水制成消石灰乳,消石灰乳由泵打入位于吸收塔内的雾化装置,在吸收塔内,被雾化成细小液滴的吸收剂与烟气混合接触,与烟气中的二氧化硫发生化学反应生成亚硫酸钙,烟气中的二氧化硫被脱除。与此同时,吸收剂带入的水分迅速被蒸发而干燥,烟气温度随之降低。脱硫反应产物及未被利用的吸收剂以干燥的颗粒物形式随烟气带出吸收塔,进入除尘器被收集下来。脱硫后的烟气经除尘器除尘后排放。该工艺有两种不同的雾化形式可供选择,一种为旋转喷雾轮雾化,另一种为气液两相流。喷雾干燥法脱硫工艺具有技术成熟、工艺流程较为简单、系统可靠性高等特点,脱硫率可达到85%以上。

In the spray drying desulfurization process, lime is used as the desulfurization absorbent. Lime is digested and added with water to make hydrated lime milk. The hydrated lime milk is pumped into the atomization device in the absorption tower. In the absorption tower, the absorbent atomized into small droplets is mixed with the flue gas, and chemically reacts with sulfur dioxide in the flue gas to generate calcium sulfite. The sulfur dioxide in the flue gas is removed. At the same time, the moisture brought in by the absorbent is quickly evaporated and dried, and the temperature of the flue gas decreases accordingly. The desulfurization reaction products and unused absorbent are carried out of the absorption tower in the form of dry particles along with the flue gas, and are collected in the dust collector. The flue gas after desulfurization is discharged after being dust removed by a dust collector. This process has two different atomization forms to choose from, one is rotating spray wheel atomization, the other is gas-liquid two-phase flow. The spray drying desulfurization process is characterized by mature technology, simple process flow, high system reliability, and the desulfurization rate can reach more than 85%.

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